The private health sector is an important player in the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s health system, but the extent of its contribution remains largely unknown. SHOPS Plus, with funding from the United States Agency for International Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, conducted an assessment of the role of the private sector in improving health system performance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The assessment focuses on key health challenges, including family planning and maternal and child health. It uses the World Health Organization’s six health system pillars as a framework: leadership/governance, service delivery, access to essential medicines, financing, health workforce, and health information systems. This brief highlights the methods, findings, and recommendations from the full assessment report.