Until now, an understanding of the full size and scope of the private health sector in Benin has been relatively incomplete, particularly with regard to the number and type of staff at private health facilities. To address this gap, the Strengthening Health Outcomes through the Private Sector (SHOPS) project conducted a private health sector census in 2014 to describe the size, scope, and geographic distribution of private health care facilities and providers in the country. For the purposes of this census, SHOPS defined the private health sector as for-profit private, faith-based, and nongovernmental organizations, as well as the pharmaceutical sector. Private for-profit facilities included individual medical cabinets or clinics, midwife-led maternités, nurse-run cabinets de soins, and other general and specialized medical practices, while the faith-based and nongovernmental sector consisted primarily of hospitals. As part of the census, SHOPS collected data on private health facilities and pharmacies, services offered, and provider characteristics. Private providers and pharmacists were also asked to identify any obstacles to expanding their practice.